The Origin of Oxygen

One of our readers (Wes S.) submitted this post for our consideration. Written from a Young Earth Creationism perspective, it also corresponds to Young Biosphere Creationism in it’s argument against macroevolution.

Origin of oxygen more complex than imagined
by Barry Tapp

…The article [by James Kasting, in Nature] outlines various creative ways that researchers have tried to address these problems [of adequate levels of oxygen in early earth’s atmosphere] over the years, but ends with a rather forlorn conclusion: ‘The ancient atmosphere may have had a more complex evolution than we imagined.’ In essence the author admits that within an evolutionary framework the data is contradictory, and no resolution of the contradictions is in sight, hence the need for ‘creative thinking’.

However, it is the naturalistic evolutionary framework that is the problem. Within this framework a reducing atmosphere is needed initially if the first cell is to have any possibility of arising by chance.3 But it must then change into an oxidizing atmosphere to permit the evolution of aerobic bacteria and multi-cellular life.

These problems disappear when the problem is approached from a biblical framework. There never was a great oxidation event because oxygen, at concentrations necessary for life to flourish, was present in the atmosphere during Creation week at the beginning. The geological evidence, including sulfur minerals and carbonate rocks, is explained by deposition during the early part of the global Flood.

Read the full article at

The Global Flood

One of the convictions of the Young Biosphere Model of creationism is belief in a global flood as recorded in Genesis, chapters 6-8. We hold this belief in common with the Young Earth Model.

Young Earth creation sites have many helpful resources on the flood and its pivotal role in interpreting the geological strata and fossil record.

Examples from

Fossil graveyards point to global Flood
“What sort of catastrophe would be required to entomb over 120 species of marine invertebrates in fined-grained rock? 
This is not just a hypothetical question. In the Canadian Rockies, over 120 species of marine invertebrates have been found preserved in a famous formation known as The Burgess Shale. Most of these animals were soft bodied, and many are so exquisitely preserved that you can still see the food in their stomachs!…” Continue reading at…

Another blog post there discusses the significance of fish and whale fossils:

This bog post cites the conclusion of secular researchers about why ankylosaurs fossils are usually upside down:

Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties

Dr Gleason Archer affirmed an interpretation of Day 4 that is consistent with the Young Biosphere Creation model.

Genesis 1:2-5 thus sets forth the first stage of creation: the formation of light. This must have meant primarily the light of the sun and the other heavenly bodies. Sunlight is a necessary precondition to the development of plant life and animal life, generally speaking…

-Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties, Zondervan, 1982.

For additional confirming quotes, see the page here.

Zondervan Encyclopedia

We have added a page of quotations from the Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible.

This Encyclopedia also confirms Mr. Gray’s interpretation of Day four (Gen. 1:14-19). The article on “Cosmogony” indicates the original creation of the solar heavens and planet earth in Genesis 1:1 prior to the creative actions of Genesis 1:3ff:

“If these days were twenty-four hour segments, then the creation (Gen 1:1, 2) can be posited to have taken place a long time before (with or without a proposed chaotic interlude). . . At any rate, the picture of Genesis 1 sets forth that the original creation occurred at an unspecified period in the past.”

The same article on Cosmogony agrees with the YBC view of God’s Day four’s activity:

“A proposed problem that light was created on the first day but that the sun appears later on the fourth can be solved by positing the sun breaking through the dense atmosphere of the earth on the fourth day at a time naturally later than the separation of the waters of the heaven (on the second day) and the appearance of the dry land, earth (on the third day)”

See the quotes on the Zondervan Encyclopedia page.

Christmas Greeting from the Moon – 50th Anniversary

On Dec. 24, 1968, three American astronauts orbited the moon for the first time. During their tenth and final orbit they broadcast an unforgettable message to the largest television audience in history.

Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders–the crew of Apollo 8–read the opening verses of Genesis 1 to a world captivated by the moment.

Merry Christmas from the Moon from The John 10:10 Project on Vimeo.

NIV Quest Study Bible Notes

This study Bible acknowledges the legitimacy of the ancient solar system and young biosphere interpretation of Genesis chapter 1.

How could there have been light before God created the sun and the moon? (Genesis 1:14–16)

Some say that the earlier light created by God (v. 3) was from some source other than the sun, perhaps iridescence from God himself. Others say that the phrase the heavens and the earth (v. 1) means the universe—all the heavenly bodies including sun, moon and stars. According to this view, God created the sources of light (v. 1) but did not reveal them until later (v. 3)—perhaps by removing some sort of cloud of darkness (v. 2). Finally, he brought the process to completion and established the rhythm and order of the solar system (v. 14), assigning the sun and moon their place and purpose—thus giving us days, nights and seasons.

Question about the original orbit of Earth

Question: “If, according to the Bible, Earth was created before the Sun and the Moon, what kept it in its orbit and what was it orbiting around?”

Andy Whiddon answered this question effectively by clarifying the nature of the Creator’s activity on Day 4 as contrasted to Day 1. [Disclaimer: The Young Biosphere Creation model, however,  interprets “let there be light” as referring to the thinning of the atmosphere to allow more light to reach Earth.]

See Mr. Whiddon’s answer at:


Fountains of the Deep – Reconsidered

“The Bleeding World of Noah’s Flood”


by Gorman Gray

God created a perfect world. After the six day creation of living things (the biosphere) God described His world as “very good” (Genesis 1: 31). From that we MUST infer that there were no wild fires, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, no asteroid impacts, no disease, no accidents, no death until after the fall of man. Perfect weather and fairly even temperatures prevailed from pole to pole, with only nightly mists watering the earth. On every land mass on earth and spilling over into the fresh water ocean were thick forests and vast masses of algae and plankton. There were no desolate areas and no rain or snow. The world was like a terrarium. Natural sunscreens prevailed in the atmosphere. The entire Edenic world was perfect and beautiful. Sharks and spiders and tigers were all friendly. For creatures possessing nephesh (soulish) life there were no deaths and population control for all creatures was automatic until sin ruined everything. There were no volcanoes and only orderly geology on our world. There were no asteroids threatening meteorite impacts on the earth or on any planet or moon in the solar system.

There were no jagged mountains created by tectonic plate movements, in fact there were no tectonic plates at all but the lithosphere was a perfectly formed, unbroken shell surrounding the earth and sealing the hot, molten upper mantle safely beneath that protective shell. Volcanoes and lava fountains were unthinkable at that time. Probably some of these benign conditions continued until the Flood.

 World geology must begin with a perfect world  which colors every conclusion. We must consider the implications of that perfect creation. Evolutionary theory is utterly crushed. It leaves no room for living things being billions of years in development and brings a host of collateral thoughts.

Out of this perfect world then disaster. The history of man descends into ugly moral decline until finally, “Every imagination of the thoughts of men’s hearts was only evil continually.” The whole world was “corrupt before God” and the world was “filled with violence” until God decided to destroy mankind. But Noah found grace in the sight of God. As we acknowledge moral decay as the ultimate cause of the Flood, we must consider today. Is world society ripening for judgment also in our time? As we seek the mechanics for a global flood, we must not miss the “why” of the Flood judgment. After God’s “longsuffering waited in the days of Noah,” His wrath was finally unleashed against a world in rebellion. Meditate on the expression used throughout the Bible, “God’s wrath.” I do not remember ever experiencing real wrath even from wicked men around me. But wrath of man is one thing.

Now contemplate the wrath of God. It is real, it is appropriate, and can be world shattering. Hear Isaiah 24: “For the windows from on high are open, and the foundations of the earth do shake. The earth is utterly broken down, the earth is clean dissolved, the earth is moved exceedingly. The earth shall reel to and fro like a drunkard, and shall be removed like a tent; and the transgression of it shall be heavy upon it; and it shall fall and not rise again.” Isaiah 24 may apply specially to the final end time but it is perfectly appropriate to describe events at the flood of Noah. Yes, a God of overwhelming love, after long, long, long, longsuffering “gives them up” to uncleanness and final, eternal judgment.

Genesis 7:11: “In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month and the 17th day of the month, on the same day were ALL the fountains of the great deep broken up and the windows of heaven were opened.”  Amos 7:4-6 explains clearly that “fire proceeded from the ‘great deep’ and consumed the farm land.” It was a potential judgment on disobedient Israel but as Amos interceded, God did not deliver that judgment, but it clearly explains the “great deep” as the source of a column of fire, proceeding from the “great deep” and overrunning the land.  Clearly we can understand Genesis 7:11 as lava fountains from the great deep, certainly not fountains of water.

I have checked with every major Bible believing commentator and all of them without exception think the fountains were water fountains, but I will show that it can not be so. Every one of the creationist authors which I researched had concluded (as I also had for many years) that the fountains of the great deep were water fountains. But no, not by any means – – – they were lava or magma fountains, large igneous provinces like the Columbia basin basalt flows, and hundreds of volcanoes. We see evidence everywhere on our planet. Rather, the “fountains” were lava fountains, external to the earth as well as internal to the earth, extrusions of magma and volcanoes world wide. And that changes everything – – – every approach to understanding the Flood is altered and makes better sense geologically, biblically and evidentially.

Because, to my knowledge, I am alone promoting this view, I regard it as incumbent on me to write as much explanation as I can, even with the limitations of minimal exposure to geology, because my conclusions were derived from the Bible but with abundant assurance from factual geology also.

There are 1500 volcanoes on land areas of the earth. There are thousands of seamounts in the ocean and dozens of utterly massive lava deposits called large igneous provinces (LIP’s) extruded in every corner of the earth and now hardened into basalt rock. Well, where did they come from?

For sure, many Bible interpreters differ widely in their conclusions. Just as in Jesus’ day, satanic forces have attempted to veil the simple Scriptures in confusion. We must admit that all of us have misread some Scriptures and misinterpreted others. Any of us, my self included, are vulnerable to error for sure. So we must love one another without a competitive spirit. Let that sink in for a moment.

Continue reading the full article under the “Geology” heading here: